The presence of hard ionic compounds of calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) in water causes water hardness. Such water, with its composition, influences the formation or deposition of limescale on the contact walls within the heating, cooling system, etc. By softening the water, carbonate (HCO3) and non-carbonate (SO4, Cl, NO3) hardness is removed.
The process is carried out by exchanging hard ionic compounds with soft sodium (Na+) ion compounds. When the ionic mass (resin) with which the softener is filled is saturated with hard ions, the effect of the softener is smaller. In order to restore the softening ability, the softener must be regenerated. During the regeneration process, the ionic mass is washed with concentrated salt solution (NaCl). In this case, calcium and magnesium ions from the functional groups of the ionic mass are replaced by sodium, so the ionic mass of the softener – ion exchanger is again ready for efficient softening of water. The ionic mass of the softener is restored completely automatically. During regeneration, salt water is fed into the drain.
Ionic softeners are used in many plants from ordinary households, boiler rooms, laundries and hotels, to large industries such as heating plants, power plants, pharmaceutical laboratories, etc. The main feature of water softening systems is that they significantly reduce the risk of accumulation of hard ionic compounds in pipes, fittings , heat exchangers and hydrophore vessels.